Discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press, 1996-2006
Refugees and asylum seekers seeking entry into the UK have become the focus of intense media and political discussion. On this project, we explore the discourses surrounding these groups, examining both how that discourse has evolved and how it has constructed both groups. In doing so, we are seeking to meet a methodological objective: the marriage of the broadly quantitative methodology of corpus linguistics with the traditionally qualitative methods of critical discourse analysis. Our intention is to both better account for the construction of the identities of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press while simultaneously affirming, amending or challenging past work undertaken on media representations of both groups.
The main aims of the project are:
1. To further the contribution of corpus linguistics to CDA by showing how corpora can play an important role in critical social research.
2. To achieve that by an exploration of the construction of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press.
3. To explore the discursive construction of the groups in focus both synchronically and diachronically over the period 1996-2006, using multiple UK news sources, which will allow as to examine a range of contrasts (e.g. regional vs. national; tabloid vs. broadsheet).
4. To explore the possible relations between discourses surrounding refugees/asylum seekers and van Dijk's (1987) description of racist discourses.
5. To reflect critically upon aim (1) by mapping out the possible uses of corpora in CDA while considering what corpora cannot achieve, and hence what marriage between corpus and non-corpus based approaches may be best for CDA.
Project Outputs: Publications and presentations directly reporting on the project
Baker, P., Gabrielatos C., Khosravinik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., McEnery, T. & Wodak, R. (2008). A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse & Society 19(3), 273-305. [Also online]
Gabrielatos, C. & Baker, P. (2008). Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: A corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press 1996-2005. Journal of English Linguistics 36(1), 5-38.
Gabrielatos, C. (2007). Selecting query terms to build a specialised corpus from a restricted-access database. ICAME Journal, 31, 5-43. [Also online]
KhosraviNik, M. (2010). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Journal of Language and Politics, 9(1), 1-28.
KhosraviNik, M. (2010) Actor descriptions, action attributions and argumentation: Towards a systematization of CDA analytical categories in representation of social groups. Journal of Critical Discourse Studies, 7(1), 55-72.
KhosraviNik, M. (2009). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers during the Balkan conflict (1999) and the British general election (2005). Discourse & Society, 20(4), 477-498.
KhosraviNik, M. (2008). British newspapers and the representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants between 1996 and 2006. Centre for Language in Social Life Working Papers, 28. Lancaster University. [Online].
2. Conference papers
Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C. & McEnery, T. (2008). Using collocational profiling to investigate the construction of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press. 7th Conference of the American Association for Corpus Linguistics (AACL 2008), Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 13-15 March 2008. [Abstract, pp. 18-19 | Slides]
Baker, P., McEnery, T. & Gabrielatos, C. (2007). Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press. Paper given at Corpus Linguistics 2007, University of Birmingham, 28-30 July 2007. [Abstract and slides available online]
Gabrielatos, C. & Baker, P. (2006). Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers: Towards a corpus-based analysis. Paper given at the Joint Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics and the Irish Association for Applied Linguistics, University College, Cork, Ireland, 7-9 September 2006. (Abstract and slides available online).
Gabrielatos, C. & Baker, P. (2006). Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers: Towards a corpus-based comparison of the stance of tabloids and broadsheets. Paper given at the First International Conference: Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines (CADAAD 2006), University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 29-30 June 2006. [Abstract and slides available online].
KhosraviNik, M. (2008). Actors, actions and argumentation: Towards a systematization of CDA analytical categories in representation of social actors. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines Conference (CADAAD 2008. University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, July 10-12, 2008.
KhosraviNik, M. (2007). Actor, action, argumentation: Towards an amalgamation of CDA methodological categories in representations of social actors. The Second Lancaster University Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics and Language Teaching (LAEL PG 2007). Lancaster University, July 5, 2007.
3. Invited talks
Baker, P. (2008). Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: a corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press 1996-2005. University of Huddersfield, 23 January 2008.
Baker, P. (2007). Flooding, crawling, sneaking: A corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press 1995-2006. University of Liverpool, 17th October 2007.
Baker, P. & Gabrielatos, C. (2009). Construction of refugees and asylum seekers in British newspapers, 1996-2005: A corpus-based approach. Language Ideology and Power Research Group (LIP) Special Symposium: “The politics of exclusion” – investigating issues of racism, anti-Semitism, xenophobia…, 9 February 2009. [Abstract and slides available online].
Gabrielatos, C. (2009). Corpus-based methodology and
critical discourse studies: Context, content, computation. Invited
Gabrielatos, C. (2008). Collocational analysis as a gateway to critical discourse analysis: The case of the construction of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press. English Language Institute, University of Michigan, 10 March 2008.
Gabrielatos, C. (2008). Compiling topic-specific corpora from limited-access online databases. Corpus Linguistics Advanced Research Education and Training (CLARET). Lancaster University, 31 March 2008. [Abstract and slides available online].
Wodak, R. (2010). Semiotics of racism. Departmental lecture, LSE, London, 22 January 2010.
Wodak, R. (2008). Discourse and discrimination. Departmental lecture, Kings College, London, 18 November 2008.
4. Research group presentations
Gabrielatos, C. (2007). Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers, 1996-2005: Report on the corpus-based analysis. Joint meeting of the Corpus Research Group (CRG) and the Language Ideology and Power Research Group (LIP), Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, 15 January 2007.
Gabrielatos, C. (2006). Selecting query terms to build a specialised corpus from a well-defined, limited-access database. Meeting of the Corpus Research Group (CRG), Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, UK, 30 October 2006.
Gabrielatos, C. (2006). Towards quantifying 'quality' in the press: Comparing the stance of UK broadsheets and tabloids towards refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants. Paper given at the joint meeting of the Corpus Research Group (CRG) and Language, Ideology and Power Research Group (LIP), Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, UK, 13 June 2006. [Abstract and slides available online].
KhosraviNik, M. (2007). Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers, 1996-2005: Report on the CDA analysis. Joint meeting of the Corpus Research Group (CRG) and the Language Ideology and Power Research Group (LIP), Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, 15 Januray 2007.
Professor Ruth Wodak was invited to join an interdisciplinary high-level expert committee, which will advise the Austrian Minister for Interior Affairs on issues of integration of migrants, present recommendations, and evaluate the implementation of the new law on integration (National Action Plan for Integration 2011). Professor Wodak will act as an expert on language (acquisition) and education. The launch of the expert committee on integration attracted wide media attention.
Prof. Ruth Wodak published an article in Open Democracy entitled, ‘Old and new demagoguery: the rhetoric of exclusion’ [10 May 2011].
Prof. Ruth Wodak was interviewed on Driving on the Right, a programme on the Far-Right in Austria and Germany, broadcast on BBC Radio 4, on 15 February 2011. [Click on the link above to listen to the programme on BBC iPlayer]
3. Publications making use of project outputs
Aaron, J.E. (2010). An awkward companion: Disability and the semantic landscape of English lame. Journal of English Linguistics, 38(1): 25-55.
Clary-Lemon, J. (2010). ‘We’re not ethnic, we’re Irish!’: Oral histories and the discursive construction of immigrant identity. Discourse & Society, 21(1): 5-25.
Crush, J. & Ramachandran, S. (2009). Xenophobia, international migration and human development. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports, Research Paper 2009/47. [Also online]
Culpeper, J. (2009). Keyness: Words, parts-of-speech and semantic categories in the character-talk of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(1): 29-59.
Enright, M. (2009). Choice, culture and the politics of belonging: The emerging law of forced and arranged marriage. Modern Law Review, 72(3): 331-359.
Fairclough, N. (2009). A dialectical-relational approach to critical discourse analysis in social research. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods for Critical Discourse Analysis, 2nd edition, 162-186.
Gooberman-Hill, R., French, M., Dieppe, P. & Hawker, G. (2009). Expressing pain and fatigue: A new method of analysis to explore differences in osteoarthritis experience. Arthritis Care & Research, 61(3): 353-360.
Hajek, M. & Kabele, J. (2010). Dual discursive patterns in Czech activists' internet media communication. European Journal of Communication, 25(1): 43-58.
Hiruy, K. (2009). Finding home far away from home: Place attachment, place-identity, belonging and resettlement among African-Australians in Hobart. Master’s Dissertation, University of Tasmania. [Online]
Krzyzanowski, M. & Wodak, R. (2008). The Politics of Exclusion: Debating migration in Austria. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Krzyzanowski, M. & Wodak, R. (2008). Migration und Rassismus in Österreich. In B. Gomes, A. Hofbauer, W. Schicho & A. Sonderegger (Eds.). Rassismus. Beiträge zu einem vielgesichtigen Phänomen. (Serie GEP: Gesellschaft, Entwicklung, Politik). Wien: Mandelbaum, 257-279.
Kwon, W., Clarke, I. & Wodak, R. (2009). Organizational decision-making, discourse, and power: Integrating across contexts and scales. Discourse & Communication, 3(3): 273-302.
Lawton, R. (2008). Language policy and ideology in the United States: A critical analysis of ‘English Only’ discourse. In M. KhosraviNik & A. Polyzou (Eds.), Papers from the Lancaster University Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics & Language Teaching, Vol. 2: Papers from LAEL PG 2007. Lancaster University, 78-103. [Online]
Marchi, A. & Taylor, C. (2009). If on a winter’s night two researchers…: A challenge to assumptions of soundness of interpretation. CADAAD Journal, 3(1): 1-20. [Online]
Marchi, A. & Taylor, C. (2009). Establishing the EU: The representation of Europe in the press in 1993 and 2005. In: A.H. Jucker, D. Schreier & M. Hundt (Eds.), Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse, Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 29), 203-226. Rodopi.
Mautner, G. (2009). Checks and balances: How corpus linguistics can contribute to CDA. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods for Critical Discourse Analysis, 2nd edition, 122-143.
May, C. (2009). Images of Capitalism in North and South. In: Proceedings of the ECPR General Conference, Potsdam/Germany, 12 September 2009. [Online]
May, C. (2009). Structural alignment: Changing orders in North and South. In: Proceedings of the 50th ISA Annual Convention, Feb 15, 2009, New York. [Online]
Oteíza, T. (2010). Patrones valorativos en el discurso oficial de Derechos Humanos en Chile: Dando valor al pasado y construyendo memorias históricas en la sociedad. Discurso & Sociedad, 4(1): 151-183.
Πολυμενέας, Γ. (2010). Σημασιολογική προτίμηση και προσωδία του ΜΕΤΑΝΑΣΤΗΣ στον ελληνικό και κυπριακό τύπο [Semantic preference and prosody of IMMIGRANT in the Greek and Cypriot press]. Proceedings of the 5th Athens Postgraduate Conference of the Faculty of Philology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 29-31 May 2009, 244-252. [Online]
Phelan, S. & Shearer, F. (2009). The “radical”, the “activist” and the hegemonic newspaper articulation of the Aotearoa New Zealand foreshore and seabed conflict. Journalism Studies, 10(2): 220-237
Polson, E. & Kahle, S. (2010). Limits of National Discourse on a Transnational Phenomenon: A Case Study of Immigration Framing in the BBC Online. International Communication Gazette, 72(3): 251-268
Richardson, J.E. & Wodak, R. (2009). The impact of visual racism: Visual arguments in political leaflets of Austrian and British far-right parties. Controversia, 6(2): 45-77.
Seidman-Zager, J. (2010). The securitization of asylum: Protecting UK residents. Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper Series, 57. Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. [Online]
Sidiropoulou, M. (2008). The translator as social scientist: The T.E.G.MA compilation project. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Athens International Conference on Translation and Interpretation, Hellenic American Union, 10-11 October 2008. [Online]
Simpson, J. (2009). A critical stance in language education: A reply to Alan Waters. Applied Linguistics, 30(3):428-434.
Taylor, C. (2009). The representation of immigrants in the Italian press. Occasional Papers, 21/2009. Siena: University of Siena. [Online]
Unger, J.W. (2010). Legitimating inaction: Differing identity constructions of the Scots language. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 13(1): 99-117.
Valdeón, R.A. (2009). Discursive constructions of terrorism in Spain: Anglophone and Spanish media representations of Eta. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(1): 66-83.
Wodak, R. (2010). The glocalization of politics in television: Fiction or reality? European Journal of Cultural Studies, 13(1): 43-62.
Wodak, R. & Köhler, K. (2010). Wer oder was ist ‘fremd’? Diskurshistorische Analyse fremdenfeindlicher Rhetorik in Österreich. Sozialwissenschaftliche Studien, 1: 33-55.
Wodak, R. (2009). In Osterreich nichts Neues - oder doch? Zukunft, 7(8): 18-22.
Wodak, R. (2009) Prejudice, racism, and discourse. In Pelinka, A., Bischof, K. & Stögner, K. (eds.), Handbook of Prejudice. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 409-443.
Wodak, R. (2009) The semiotics of racism: A Critical Discourse-Historical Analysis. In: Renkema, J., (ed.) Discourse, of course : an overview of research in discourse studies. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 311-326.
Wodak, R. (2009). Das Ende der Aufklarung? In Ehalt, H.C., Hopf, W. & Liessmann, K.P. (eds.), Kritik & Utopie. Positionen und Perspektiven. Munster: LIT Verlag, 442-447.
Wodak, R. (2008). ‘Us’ and ‘Them’: Inclusion/Exclusion – Discrimination via Discourse. In G. Delanty, R. Wodak & P.R. Jones (eds.), Identity, Belonging, Migration. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 54-78.
Wodak, R. (2007) Pragmatics and Critical Discourse Analysis. A cross-disciplinary inquiry. Pragmatics and Cognition, 15(1): 203-225.
4. Courses listing project outputs as required or recommended reading
· Language Rights (University of Essex, UK).
· International Migration and Ethnic Relations (Malmö University, Sweden).
· Politics and the Media (University of Milan, Italy).
· Rhetoric - a Research Environment (Örebro University, Sweden).
If you have used outputs of the RAIM project in a publication and would like it to be listed here, please let us know
This page is maintained by Costas Gabrielatos